- General Council of Sangha Sammeggi
- (GCSS)Established by "political pongyis" as a national organization in 1920 in opposition to British colonial rule (sammeggi means "united" or "unity"). Working closely with the General Council of Burmese Associations (GCBA), its protests against the authorities were highly effective because Buddhist monasteries (kyaung) were found in every Burmese village; activist monks (dhammakatika) preaching on political themes had growing influence during a time of hardship in rural Burma (despite the disapproval of many senior sayadaws, who believed monks should avoid politics); and young monks, having renounced family ties, made ideal "shock troops" for demonstrations. The monks established thousands of wunthanu athin in rural villages. However, government crackdowns and the GCSS's own factionalism, which paralleled that of the GCBA, had undermined its credibility by the 1930s.
Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar). Donald M. Seekins . 2014.
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Wunthanu Athin — Patriotic or nationalist associations (Ba Maw translates wunthanu as racially faithful ones ) established in rural villages that were closely associated with the General Council of Burmese Associations (GCBA) and the General Council of Sangha … Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar)
GCSS — See General Council of Sangha Sammeggi … Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar)